Total quality management or quality management
Total quality management (TQM) is a management philosophy that involves the whole organisation (core, management and support processes) in taking responsibility and ensuring the quality of their products/services and processes by constantly seeking to improve the effectiveness of their processes at every stage. TQM should address most of the dimensions of the organisation using a holistic management approach to satisfy customer needs or requirements; the approach involves the stakeholders. The TQM concept emerged in the 1980s; total quality management (TQM), quality management (QM) or TQ (total quality) are the same concept, although some authors show some differentiation.
TQM is a customer-focused management philosophy that seeks to continuously improve business processes using analytical tools and teamwork involving all employees.
The term citizen/customer is used to emphasise the dual relationship between the public administration on the one hand, the users of public services, and on the other hand, all the members of the public, who as citizens and taxpayers have a stake in the services and their outputs.